How to write an essay on Parse’s Human Becoming Theory (Solved)

How to write an essay on Parse’s Human Becoming Theory (Solved)

Nursing theories form the foundation of nursing practice through the creation of a structure to the vision of humans and health. These theories view human beings as complex structures composed of far much more than the sum of their parts. Parse’s theory of human becoming embraces the advantage of nursing by viewing human beings differently instead of human science. This theory emphasizes the patient’s perception of the experiences during illness and the wisdom to make choices concerning their health (Parse, 2018). The theory rates quality of life from each person’s perspective leading to the formulation of nursing goals based on individual patient needs. The goal of nursing using Parse’s theory involves examining the quality of life from the client’s perspective (Parse, 2018). Because of this understanding of human beings and their feelings, Parse’s theory can be an important reference to nursing care during end-of-life care and the grieving process.

Actualizing Parse’s Theory

The human becoming theory recognizes that man is a combination of biological, psychological, sociological, and spiritual factors. Human beings are observed to be in continuous interaction with the environment and are capable of reaching out beyond their limits (Smith & Parker, 2015). The case of Ann and Ben describes the care of the patient and family members during the period surrounding death. To actualize Parse’s theory, the nurse recognizes that grieving is a process of human becoming where the individual is confronted with loss. The normal human response involves acceptance, reluctance to move forward, and desire to let go. The nurse caring for the patient will not seek to change the expressed feeling but demonstrate professional presence by seeking clarity of the feelings and empathizing with Ben. The nurse will not offer advice to Ben but dwell on the paradoxes observed while ensuring the becoming of the nurse-patient/family relationship.

Parse’s theory is based on three assumptions that guide the choice of care for patients/families including aspects of meaning, rhythmicity, and transcendence. Under the assumption of meaning, man’s reality is given through lived experiences. Rhythmicity involves the co-creation of patterns of relating in mutual process with the universe while transcendence demonstrates the ability to reach out beyond their limits (Parse, 2018). The nurse can actualize Parse’s theory based on these three aspects. For instance, Ben’s life is created in patterns that seem to surround death; the death of Jessie, Abe, and now his wife Ann. Because Ben seems to accept that his family is with the angels, the nurse can plan for spiritual revelation to help Ben accept his wife’s loss. Actions like quoting a few scriptures and consoling based on spirituality can help Ben through this period. Additionally, the nurse is obligated to bring Ben back to the sense that human life is free and open. The choice of moving on from this situation should be made clear to ensure Ben familiarizes himself with reality.

Characteristics of a Human Becoming Nurse

The human becoming theory provides a transformative approach to all levels of nursing and focuses on fixing problems. This approach means that the nurse must be with the patient and provide guidance towards established health goals. To perform these functions, the nurse must be able to empathize with the patient and guide them through the difficult moments. Empathy ensures that the nurse sees through the patient’s heart and builds strong relationships that can promote sharing. Parse’s theory identifies the importance of creating meaning through lived experiences (Smith & Parker, 2015). A human becoming nurse should possess this trait that can help understand the behavior of patients/families during illness and loss. Through the demonstration of meaning, the nurse can help create an environment that can promote recovery.

Parse’s theory capitalizes on the assumption of rhythmicity where human becoming involves co-creating patterns of relating in mutual process with the universe. To achieve rhythmicity, human beings interact through valuing, imaging, and languaging (Smith & Parker, 2015). A human becoming nurse should be able to connect with the patient through communication. The nurse should be able to establish positive relationships with the patient through effective communication. Another crucial characteristic is transcendence whereby the individual reaches out and beyond the set limits. The nurse should be able to adjust to the needs of the patient including cultural accommodation to help the patient through difficult times. Lastly, a human becoming nurse should have respect for the patient’s rights, customs, and beliefs.

Strengths and Weaknesses

The Parse theory of human becoming provides a transformative approach to deal with patients in several stages of care. The first strength observed in this theory is the ability to separate nursing from other disciplines (Smith & Parker, 2015). The theory demonstrates how nurses develop deep connections with patients, spend time to understand their needs, and specific nursing roles that promote healing and recovery. Secondly, the theory provides guidelines of care and useful administration in nursing practice. For instance, nurses are required to be with patients and provide guidance towards achieving set goals. Another crucial strength of the theory is that it can be used in education because of its methodological approach to nursing practice (Parse, 2018). The theory also provides crucial information about the human being where it depicts what more is present in the human than just the body parts.

The theory of human becoming portrays some weaknesses that might limit its application in nursing. Most of the research conducted on the application of theory demonstrates that it is in a closed circle. The theory only seems to deal with the understanding of the patient during periods of sadness or grief rather than the care of patients who will recover. Secondly, the theory does not utilize the basic steps of the nursing process. For instance, there is no specific formula to apply the theory during care delivery including failure to provide evaluation criteria of met needs. Another weakness is that the theory cannot be that beneficial to the novice nurse practitioner. It seems to require a lot of expertise in patient care for the nurse to utilize the theory and it cannot be applied during emergency patient care.

Challenges in Healthcare Institutions

The theory of human becoming is based on the nurses’ submission to the world view of the patient. It requires the nurse to spend time with the patient and understand their values and guide them towards desired health outcomes. Most institutions are faced with the challenge of nursing shortage limiting the amount of time spent with patients. It will be difficult for nurses to practice according to this theory based on the healthcare worker shortage in most institutions.

Understanding of Transcendence 

Parse’s theory explains that human becoming is cotranscending multidimensionally with emerging possibles (Smith & Parker, 2015). Transcendence means that the human body transforms beyond imaginable limits. Ben believes that the revelation of the shooting star represents the transformation of Ann’s body into that of an angel. Just like the two falling stars that Ben believed were his daughter and grandson, the nurse can help the patient believe the same. Asking more about the stars and acknowledging how beautiful the human body can transform will help Ben throughout the grieving period. Additionally, listening to Ben, paying attention to his explanations, and enquiring for more can help him express his feelings.

Additional Theory and Care Plan

An additional theory that I can apply in this situation is Hildegard Peplau’s theory of interpersonal relationships. The theory emphasizes the nurse-client relationship to be the foundation of nursing practice (Smith & Parker, 2015). The nurse maneuvers care through the phases of orientation, identification, exploitation, and resolution to satisfy the patient’s needs.

The plan of care for Ben using Peplau’s theory will be guided by the nursing process. During the assessment that represents the orientation phase, the nurse collects background information about the family and cultural practices during grief. The identification phase of the theory is represented by the formulation of a diagnosis and planning for care. The goal during care for Ben is to assist him throughout the grieving process and to establish control over perceived fears. The plan will involve paying attention to Ben’s requests, creating a quiet environment for grief, spiritual support to guide more understanding of transcendence, and involving other family members to provide support to Ben. During the evaluation phase, the nurse or significant other can assess Ben’s coping with grief and acceptance of loss.

In summary, Parse’s theory provides a distinct view of the human being making nursing care unique to each individual. The theory focuses on the promotion of quality life based on the patient’s experience and perception. The role of the nurse includes listening to the patient, communicating effectively, expressing concern, and guiding the patient to achieve their goals.



Parse R. R. (2018). Dignity: The Ethos of Humanbecoming. Nursing Science Quarterly31(3), 259–262.

Smith, M. C., & Parker, M. E. (2015). Nursing theories and nursing practice (4th

ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis. ISBN 978-0-8036-3312-4.

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